In this tutorial, we had discussed the Agriculture And Irrigation in West Bengal.
In West Bengal, agriculture is the chief occupation of the people in rural areas. The successful implementation of land reforms in the state along with suitable climate, perennial rivers, fertile soil, and varied topography makes it a chief occupation in the state.
Agriculture commits to 24% of state GDP (Gross Domestic Product) while contributes about 60% of the workforce. Whereas, the state provides 8% to India’s foodgrain production. The Net Sown Area in West Bengal is 52,433.88 sq km according to the Economic Survey 2017-18. Low productivity is due to the occupancy of small and medium farmers near about 68% of the total cultivated area.
I. AGRICULTURE IN WEST BENGAL: AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONES
On the basis of two primary factors climatic factors and soil, West Benga is divided into 6 agro-climatic zones which are:
(01). HILL ZONE / NORTHERN HILL
The hill zone includes the districts: Darjeeling (except the Siliguri division) and the Northern edge of the Jalpaiguri district. Terrace cultivation primarily practices in this zone.
The soil texture of this zone is brown in colour. It is highly acidic in nature and moderately fertile. This zone receives 355 cm of rainfall. The main crops grown in this zone are tea, orange, pineapple, cinchona, and chitrame.
(02). TERAI ZONE / TERAI TEESTA FLOOD PLAINS
The Terai Zone includes the districts: Koch Bihar (Cooch Behar), Jalpaiguri, and Siliguri division of Darjeeling district and West Dinajpur district.
The soil texture of this zone is sandy to sandy loam and it is strongly acidic in nature. This zone receives 200-350 cm of rainfall. Wheat, tea, pineapple, orange, rice, and jute are the main crops grown in this zone. This zone is a fertile alluvial flood plain.
(03). OLD ALLUVIUM / GANGETIC FLOOD PLAIN
The Old Alluvium zone or Gangetic Flood Plain includes the districts: Uttar Dinajpur (North Dinajpur), Dakshin Dinajpur (South Dinajpur), Malda, Nadia, Purba Bardhaman (East Bardhaman), Paschim Bardhaman (West Bardhaman), Murshidabad, North 24 Parganas, South 24 Parganas, Howrah, Hooghly, and Birbhum.
The soil texture of this zone is loamy and it is neutral in acidity. This zone receives 130-160 cm of rainfall. The main crops grown in this zone are paddy and jute.
(04). NEW ALLUVIUM / UNDULATING LATERITIC ZONE
This New Alluvium zone or Undulating Lateric zone includes the districts: Purba Bardhaman (East Bardhaman), Paschim Bardhaman (West Bardhaman), Bankura, Birbhum, Purulia, and Paschim Medinipur (West Medinipur).
The soil texture of this zone is coarse and it is acidic in nature. This zone receives 110-130 cm of rainfall. The main crops grown in this zone are rice, wheat, and potato.
(05). LATERITE AND RED SOIL ZONE / VINDHYAN OLD FLOOD PLAIN
The Laterite and Red Soil zone includes the districts: Murshidabad, Howrah, Hooghly, Purba Bardhaman (East Bardhaman), Paschim Bardhaman (West Bardhaman), Birbhum, Purba Medinipur (East Medinipur) and Paschim Medinipur (West Medinipur).
The soil texture of this zone is acidic to neutral. This zone receives 120-130 cm of rainfall. Rice, maize, and potato are the main crops grown in this zone.
(06). COASTAL AND SALINE ZONE / COASTAL FLOOD PLAIN
The Coastal and Saline zone or Coastal Flood Plain includes the districts: Howrah, Purba Medinipur (East Medinipur), North 24 Parganas, and South 24 Parganas.
The soil texture of this zone is fine textured and it is saline in nature. This zone receives 150-170 cm of rainfall. Rice and jute are important crops produced in this zone.
II. MAJOR CROPS OF WEST BENGAL
A variety of food crops, cash crops, and plantation crops are cultivated in West Bengal due to its suitable climatic and preferable ecological conditions.
The most important plantation crop of the state is tea.
There are two agricultural seasons in West Bengal: Kharif Crop Season and Rabi Crop Season.
West Bengal is the largest producer of paddy, jute, pineapple, brinjal, and cabbage in India; whereas the second-largest producer of tea, meat, and fish in India.
The major cash crops in West Bengal are rice, jute, and tea.
These are discussed below:
In India, West Bengal is the highest producer of rice (paddy), offering about 20% of the total rice production. It is a Kharif crop, thus it is cultivated to those regions where abundant water supply and high humidity are available. A variety of rice crop cultivated in this state and it can be cultivated on a wide variety of soils such as silts, loam, and deep fertile clayey soil.
More than two-thirds of the rice production comes from East and West Midnapore, Bardhaman, North and South 24 Parganas, Bankura, Birbhum, and North and South Dinajpur districts. Rest of the rice-production comes from Howrah, Hooghly, Jalpaiguri, Cooch Behar, and Malda districts. The three notified varieties of rice in West Bengal are Aman, Aus, and Boro.
➢ Aman: This rice variety is sown just before monsoon i.e. in month June-July and harvested in month November. 75% of rice grown in the state is of this variety. East and West Midnapore are the major producers of Aman variety.
➢ Aus: This rice variety is sown in April-May and harvested in August. Murshidabad and Nadia are the main producers of Aus variety.
➢ Boro: This rice variety is sown in November-December and harvested in March-April. Bardhaman is the main producer of Boro variety.
There are three new rice varieties have been developed in west Bengal namely Bhupesh, Dhruba, and Rajdip, according to the Economic Survey report, 2017-18.
➢ JUTE (FIBRE CROP)
Jute is a major cash crop of West Bengal and it is cultivated in the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta region.
Jute is a Kharif crop, thus it must require three climatic conditions: warm temperature (30-40°C), high humidity (70-90%), and moderate rainfall (150-200 cm). Jute has taken out as fibre from the inner bark of the jute plant. West Bengal contributes 79% of jute fibre of total production in India.
In West Bengal, It is primarily cultivated in the districts of Malda, Murshidabad, Nadia, North 24 Parganas, South 24 Parganas, Uttar Dinajpur (North Dinajpur), Dakshin Dinajpur (South Dinajpur), Jalpaiguri, Koch Bihar (Cooch Behar), Howrah, Hooghly, and Bardhaman.
A new variety of jute has been developed i.e. KRO-4 according to Economic Survey report, 2017-18.
Tea is the major plantation crop in West Bengal and it grows well in the hilly slopes. Additionally, tea plants require well-drained loamy soil, hot and humid temperatures (ranging between 25°C-32°C) and rainfall (150-350 cm). Thus, tea is cultivated in Darjeeling, Terai, and Duars regions of West Bengal.
In West Bengal, more than three-forth of the total tea production comes from the Duars region. East India Company set up large estates in Darjeeling district for the tea plantation and now it is maintained by the Tea Board of India.
Darjeeling tea occupies a place of pride in the whole of India due to its taste and flavour. The exotic variety of tea in the world is cultivated here. It can be available in black, green and white form.
In Darjeeling, tea plantation began in 1841 by Dr Campbell, a civil surgeon of Indian Medical Service. Darjeeling tea is grown in the slopes of hilly areas of Darjeeling district.
Due to high demand and growing appreciation for organic tea in Western countries that will encourage some tea gardeners to produce organic tea in Darjeeling.
• SOME OTHER CROPS OF WEST BENGAL
Wheat is cultivated in West Bengal after the independence of India. Wheat is a Rabi crop, it is sown in the month of October-November and harvested in the month of March-April.
In West Bengal, the main wheat-producing districts are Murshidabad, Birbhum, Nadia, Purba Bardhaman (East Bardhaman), Paschim Bardhaman (West Bardhaman), Darjeeling, Malda and Bankura.
Sugarcane grows well in temperature between 20°C to 28°C and requires 150 cm of rainfall. It is an annual crop and cultivates well in the districts of Murshidabad, Nadia and Purba Bardhaman.
Mulberry plant supports the silk industry. It is primarily cultivated in the districts of Malda, Murshidabad, Bankura, and Uttar Dinajpur (North Dinajpur).
By the efforts of the State Government and Central Silk Board, a network of research and development extension and training units have been established in West Bengal. As a result, new tools and modern techniques have been propagated and applied in mulberry cultivation.
Barley is one of the major cereal crops and is a Rabi crop. In West Bengal, barley is widely cultivated over vast ranges in the districts of Murshidabad, Nadia, and Jalpaiguri. A large part of the production goes for the manufacturing of beer and other alcoholic products. However, It is generally used in baby food products.
It is a Kharif crop and cultivated in the districts of Koch Bihar (Cooch Behar), Jalpaiguri, and Terai areas of Darjeeling. It is utilised for the production of starch, chips, cornflakes, germ oil, glucose, and gluten products.
In West Bengal, a variety of oilseeds crops are produced such as mustard, rapeseeds, til, linseed, groundnut, castor, sunflower, etc. However, the high production of oilseeds comes from rapeseeds, mustard, and from til.
There are three different varieties of til produced as per the crop season, for example, bhadoi til, winter til, and summer til.
The primary cooking oil in West Bengal is Mustard oil. It is grown in the districts of Uttar Dinajpur (North Dinajpur), Dakshin Dinajpur (South Dinajpur), Murshidabad, Nadia, Jalpaiguri, Birbhum, Purba Bardhaman (East Bardhaman) and Paschim Bardhaman (West Bardhaman).
Potato is a Rabi crop and it is cultivated mainly in five districts of West Bengal, these are Hooghly, Purba Medinipur (East Medinipur), Paschim Medinipur (West Medinipur), Purba Bardhaman (East Bardhaman) and Paschim Bardhaman (West Bardhaman).
Approximately, 75% of the total potato production comes from these three districts only.
The betel plant is another important crop in West Bengal due to the high demand of betel leaves. Both the temperature and rainfall in Bengal are suitable for its production.
Betelvines are grown primarily in the districts of Paschim Medinipur (West Medinipur), Purba Medinipur (East Medinipur), Bankura, Howrah, Hooghly, Nadia, North 24 Parganas, and South 24 Parganas.
Tobacco is a Rabi crop and it is also an important crop of West Bengal. Tobacco requires temperature between 20-30°C and rainfall between 50-100 cm.
It is primarily cultivated in the districts of Koch Bihar (Cooch Behar), Jalpaiguri, Nadia, Uttar Dinajpur (North Dinajpur) and Dakshin Dinajpur (South Dinajpur).
Pulses are crops include gram, arhar, lentil, black gram, magu, peas, khesari, etc. It is a major staple food in West Bengal.
It is primarily grown in the districts of Murshidabad, Nadia, Malda, Purba Medinipur (East Medinipur), Paschim Medinipur (West Medinipur), North 24 Parganas, South 24 Parganas, Uttar Dinajpur (North Dinajpur), Dakshin Dinajpur (South Dinajpur), Birbhum, Purba Bardhaman (East Bardhaman), and Paschim Bardhaman (West Bardhaman) districts.
Table: Area and Production of Principal Crops
|Crops||Area (in hectares)|
|Production (in tonnes) |
**Source: Economic Survey 2017-2018
III. AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT SCHEMES FOR WEST BENGAL
State Government runs some schemes for agricultural development. These are as follows:
• AMAR FASAL AMAR GOLA
“Amar Fasal Amar Gola” scheme was launched in 2014 by the West Bengal Government to offer financial assistance to marginal farmers of the state, thus they can have their own storehouses and vending carts. A subsidy varying between Rupees 5,000 and 25,000 will be provided for the warehouses.
A similar scheme “Amar Fasal Amar Gadi” has also been launched by the state government in which a subsidy of rupees 10,000 is given to buy vehicles (tractors).
• AMAR DHAN AMAR CHATAL
“Amar Dhan Amar Chatal” scheme was launched in 2015 by the State Government. This scheme helps the farmers for setting up the sheds and provides paddy drying machines across the state. As a result, procured paddy is protected from getting damaged before it is sent to the rice mills. This scheme covers all the district farmers across the state.
• DOUBLING FARMER INCOME BY 2020 SCHEME
This scheme was launched by the State Government aims to improve and increase farmer’s income by developing their skills as well as focused on agricultural technologies, markets, finance facilities, and other infrastructure. Additionally, this scheme focuses on productivity and to reduce the yield gap.
• KHADYA SURAKSHA YOJANA
This scheme was launched by the State Government on 27th January 2017. This scheme supplies 35 kg of food per month per family holding a ration card. Around 80% of the population in the state get the facility under the scheme. It is also popular as Khadya Sathi Scheme.
• KRISHAK BANDHU SCHEME
The government of West Bengal has announced the Krishak Bandhu scheme on 01st January 2019 to address the farm distress in the state and the start date to apply was 01st February 2019.
The important features of the Krishak Bandhu scheme are:
➢ The government will pay the premium of Crop insurance to all the beneficiaries under the scheme.
➢ The scheme would cover 72 lakh farmers and share-cropper families of the West Bengal.
➢ All the beneficiary farmers of this scheme would get financial support in the form of a fixed income. They get an amount of Rs. 5,000 per acre in two instalments, one in Kharif Crop season (the first instalment in the month of June) and another in Rabi Crop season (second instalment in the month of November).
➢ Additionally, each beneficiary farmer will get life insurance of Rs. 200000 (Rs.2 Lakh) in case of accidental death (including suicide) between the age of 18 to 60 years within 15 days.
➢ With this, farmers will get minimum assistance of Rs 2000 per year on a pro-rata basis.
• BANGLA SHASHYA BIMA (BSB) SCHEME
A crop insurance scheme has launched by the West Bengal government on 28th June 2019 in collaboration with the Agriculture Insurance Company of India (AIC), for the Kharif Season Crops. The scheme is popular as Bangla Shashya Bima (BSB) and it would be free of cost for the farmers since the state government will pay the full premium.
It is primarily applicable for all the farmers in 15 districts – Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Purba Bardhaman, Paschim Bardhaman, Purba Medinipur, Malda, Hooghly, Nadia, Murshidabad, Koch Bihar (Cooch Behar), Birbhum, Purulia, Dakshin Dinajpur, North 24 Parganas, and South 24 Parganas.
The crops that will be covered by insurance are Aman paddy, Aus paddy, jute, and maize.
All farmers avail the benefit of agricultural loans. The insurance will cover the losses either of the four situations –
(i) for any losses suffered during planting,
(ii) for any losses suffered during cultivation,
(iii) for any losses during the period post-cutting when crops are lying in the field,
(iv) for any losses caused by adverse weather situations.
The insurance amount will be calculated per hectare by the state government.
[N.B.: After analyzing the performance, the State Government will decide to incorporate Rabi Season Crops in this scheme later on].
IV. GOVERNMENT MEASURES FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
For the development of agriculture, a few measures have been taken by the State Government are as follows:
➢ For the purpose of major land improvements, the State Government has taken the ownership of surplus land and redistributed it to the poor landless labourers.
➢ Some fairs have been organized to motivate the farmers like Block Krishi Mela, Sub-divisional Krishi Mela, and District Krishi Mela.
➢ To encourage the farmers, felicitated them with Krishak Ratna at the block level, Krishak Samman and Mati Samman at the state level.
➢ New methods of crop cultivation have been introduced by the state government like System of Rice Intensification (SRI), Zero Tillage, and System of Assured Rice Production (SARP) for Paddy; on the other hand, Zero Tillage for Wheat.
➢ To get the benefit of direct marketing of crops, vegetable as well as agricultural products, the state government has commenced Sufal Bangla in 2014. As a result, farmers are directly connected with the buyers.
V. AGRI-EXPORT ZONES OF WEST BENGAL
The Government of India has made an agri-export zone for the promotion of agricultural exports. West Bengal is divided into 6 agri-export zones by the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA). They are as follows:
|Jalpaiguri, Siliguri, Cooch Behar, North Dinajpur||Pineapple|
|Malda, Murshidabad, Nadia, North 24 Parganas||Litchi|
|North 24 Parganas, Nadia, South 24 Parganas, Howrah||Vegetables|
|Hooghly, Bardhaman, Howrah, East Midnapore||Potato|
|East Midnapore, Siliguri, Jalpaiguri, Nadia||Flowers|
VI. INSTITUTIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
The State Government has set-up several institutions for agricultural development in the state.
• WEST BENGAL STATE MARKETING BOARD
West Bengal State Marketing Board has been set-up under the West Bengal Agricultural Produce Marketing (Regulation) Act, 1972.
The motto of this board is to provide wholesale markets, rural markets, Krishak Bazars, and terminal markets to farmers so that they can sell their products directly to the buyers/consumers without any help of any middlemen. This board emphasise to eliminate the middlemen.
• DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
For the agricultural development purposes, the agricultural department in West Bengal takes various developments in agriculture to raise productivity as well as helps to increase farmer’s income. The agricultural department operates e-portals for the farmers such as DACNET, AGRISNET, and AGMARKNET. Besides, farmers can know various crop-related problems and their solutions through website Matir Kotha. Portal also includes kinds of seeds, their availability, cost, quality, suggestions for seasonal crops, cultivation techniques, crop diseases, and their remedies.
The department runs directorate of Jute Development in Kolkata and Regional AGMARK laboratory in Kolkata as well. It has field offices at 4 locations: Bongaon, Gede, Kalimpong, and Paitanki.
The Department of Agriculture in the state runs 7 food parks in association with the Ministry of Food Processing Industries. They are located at Jangipur (Murshidabad), Mokdumpur (Malda), Chakgaria (South 24 Parganas), Rahamu Jote and Lievsipukri (Darjeeling) and 3 parks in Sankrail (Howrah).
VII. HORTICULTURE AND FLORICULTURE IN WEST BENGAL
The area of horticultural crops like fruits, vegetables, flowers, spices, and plantation is increasing which leads to more production. As per the Horticulture Statistics of Government of India 2018-19, West Bengal ranked 1st in respect of annual production in vegetables [produced 29.55 million tonnes (mt) of vegetables against 27.70 mt in the last year).
Floriculture is a growing industry in West Bengal. It’s the highest producer of cut flowers in India. Major flowers produced within the state are rose, tuberose, carnation, gerbera, gladiolus, hibiscus, orchids, and marigold. The most flower producer locations are Kalimpong, Pankskura, Rangaghat, Thakurnagar, Bagnan, etc. The main flower importers are Middle East countries.
The State Government has established a floriculture park at Mungpoo in Darjeeling district of West Bengal, which provides the infrastructure like cold storage facilities, grading, and packaging room.
|Banana||Nadia, North 24 Parganas, Hooghly, Murshidabad|
|Mango||Malda, North 24 Parganas, Murshidabad|
|Pineapple||Darjeeling, North Dinajpur, Jalpaiguri|
|Papaya||North and South 24 Parganas, Nadia|
|Litchi||Murshidabad, Malda, Nadia|
West Bengal government runs institution works under the Department of Food Processing Industries and Horticulture. It has been established in 1986 and has 12 board members including the chairman, secretaries, managing director, and experts.
The institute also engages with research work and has developed many new hybrid vegetables (IPSHA cabbage, carrot, coriander), IPSHA spices, etc.
VIII. IRRIGATION IN WEST BENGAL
Irrigation facilities are required all over India due to its agrarian economy. The need for irrigation in this state is being felt as in the other parts of India. The rivers passing through the Chota Nagpur plateau region and the water is used for canal irrigation in the state. Over 65% of the net irrigated area is under the canal system.
• SOURCES OF IRRIGATION
West Bengal has a dense network of rivers so, there are abundant water resources. Both perennial and non-perennial rivers, lakes, canals built on rivers, tubewells and wells help to perform irrigation in West Bengal.
In West Bengal, Rivers and Canal irrigation is the primary major source of irrigation, whereas wells and tubewells are the groundwater sources that are the second major source of irrigation.
• MULTI-PURPOSE IRRIGATION PROJECTS OF WEST BENGAL
The State Government of West Bengal operates many multi-purpose river valley projects with collaboration from the Central Government or with other states. These irrigation projects are broadly divided into three categories, such as Major, Medium, and Minor Irrigation Projects.
➢ MAJOR AND MEDIUM IRRIGATION PROJECTS IN WEST BENGAL
The major and medium irrigation projects of West Bengal are as follows:
(i) MIDNAPORE CANAL
Midnapore canal was commenced in 1871 to link Cuttack and Calcutta. It is connected to the Kangsabati river at Mohanpur. At present, this canal extends to Uluberiya on the river Hooghly, enroute the Rupnarayan and Damodar rivers. It has the potential of irrigating 49,879 hectares of land. This canal irrigates the fertile areas of the Midnapore district.
(ii) DAMODAR VALLEY CORPORATION PROJECT (DVC)
This project located on the river Damodar in the Bardhaman district of West Bengal. By an Act of the Constituent Assembly on 7th July 1948, Damodar Valley Corporation Project (DVC) was initiated and it is recognised as the first multipurpose river valley project of independent India.
The five major objectives of this project are as follows:
(i) flood control surrounding the area;
(ii) the reserve of water for irrigation;
(iii) formation, transmission and distribution of hydraulic electricity;
(iv) eco-conservation and afforestation; and
(v) socio-economic well-being of the people residing in and around Damodar Valley Corporation projects.
This corporation project is represented by both the Central Government and the State Government of West Bengal and Jharkhand. With the help of this project, five districts of Bengal irrigating the agricultural land, those are namely Bardhaman, Hooghly, Howrah, Bankura, and Purulia. Presently, four power plants are operating under DVC in West Bengal.
(iii) KANGSABATI RESERVOIR PROJECT
This project is located on the rivers Kangsabati and Kumari in the district of Bankura. It’s a 38 meters high dam at Khatra town. It is also suggested as the Kangsabati Irrigation Project (KIP). In 1956, the Kangsabati Reservoir Project was initiated in the state of West Bengal. It was a part of India’s Second Five Year Plan and the object of this project is to provide water to 348,477 hectares of land in the districts of West and East Midnapore, Bankura, and Hooghly.
The purpose of this project is to irrigate the land using water from the Kangsabati river along with the Shilaboti and the Bhoirobbanki rivers. Anicut dam was built in 1872 on the Kangsabati river in Paschim Midnapore and it was also attached to the Kangsabati Reservoir Project for irrigating the agricultural land.
(iv) MAYURAKSHI RESERVOIR PROJECT
Mayurakshi Reservoir Project involves the construction of a barrage across the Mayurakshi river at Tilpara (near Suri) in Birbhum district. Mayurakshi River is a tributary of the Hooghly river. It originates from the Chota Nagpur plateau and flows through Bihar and West Bengal states. This project was executed in 1951 and was completed in 1985.
(v) SUBARNAREKHA PROJECT
The Subarnarekha Barrage project is located near Bhosraghat in Paschim Medinipur district West Bengal. It was executed in 1994. This project irrigates 1,14,198 hectares of the agricultural landmass. It is a joint project of three states: Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal.
The main focus of this project is the irrigation for the land and it will be carried out through the Subarnarekha main canal, Betnoti branch canal, which distributes three command area reservoirs i.e. Haldia, Jambhira, and Baura. Besides, there is another reservoir at Icha over the Kharkai river, a tributary of Subarnarekha river.
(vi) TEESTA BARRAGE PROJECT
Teesta barrage project is initiated with the construction of Teesta barrage on Teesta River in North Bengal and it is known as a multi-purpose irrigation project through which about 9.22 lakh hectares area is irrigated. However, it generates 67.50 MW of hydel power throughout the year. Construction of the Teesta barrage project has prevented the annual flooding of the river in the nearby areas.
The three main canals such as Teesta Mahananda Link Canal, Dauk Nagar Main Canal, and Tangon Main Canal are joined to the Teesta barrage. The Mahananda barrage and Dauk barrage are connected with Teesta barrage to irrigate the land of Cooch Behar, Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, North and South Dinajpur, and Malda districts.
➢ MINOR IRRIGATION PROJECTS IN WEST BENGAL
West Bengal runs a number of minor irrigation projects and mentioned below in the table.
|Sl. No.||Name of the Project||District|
|1||Cluster of Minor Irrigation Scheme||Jalpaiguri|
|2||Cluster of Minor Irrigation Scheme||Paschim Medinipur|
|3||Cluster of Minor Irrigation Scheme||Bankura|
|4||Taipur Irrigation Scheme||Darjeeling|
|5||Berai Irrigation Scheme||Bankura|
|6||Sali Reservoir Scheme||Bankura|
|7||Sali Diversion Scheme||Bankura|
|8||Subhankar Danra Irrigation Scheme||Burdwan|
|9||Bandajore Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|10||Buridumur Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|11||Dangra Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|12||Fakidi Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|13||Fuljore Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|14||Kansai Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|15||Keshtobazar Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|16||Kulbera Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|17||Kumari Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|18||Majra Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|19||Rupai Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|20||Saharajore Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|21||Sankha Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|22||Tara Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|23||Turga Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|24||Bandhu Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|25||Barabhum Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|26||Dimu Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|27||Karrior Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|28||Lipaniajore Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|29||Parga Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|30||Ramchandrapur Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|31||Taragonia Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|32||Khairabera Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|33||Hanumata Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
|34||Moutorjore Irrigation Scheme||Purulia|
➢ GROUNDWATER RESOURCES FOR IRRIGATION
Groundwater has performed a significant role in West Bengal’s agricultural productivity from the historical past. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, agricultural growth rates were 6% per annum and aim to increase in growth rate with some measures, for example, decide to expand the area under boro rice cultivation and try to increase in production of all paddy crops by using groundwater irrigation from tubewells.
Shallow tubewells are used in those areas where the water level is found within 7 m below the ground, i.e., in Murshidabad, Malda, etc.
Deep tubewells are used in those areas where the water level is found in deeper depths, i.e., in the Western plateau region of West Bengal.
➢ SCHEMES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF IRRIGATION
The State Government of West Bengal has initiated some schemes for development of irrigation are as follows:
• Jal Dharo Jal Bharo Scheme has initiated by the State Government of West Bengal in 2011, under the 100 days NREGA project. Till now many ponds and water reservoirs have been dug up in the state to store and conserve water during the rainy season.
• Jal Tirtha Scheme has initiated by the State Government of West Bengal in 2014 in comparatively dry areas i.e. Purulia, Birbhum, Bankura and West Midnapore. Micro-irrigation techniques have been used under this scheme to irrigate fields along the non-perennial rivers.
• In North Dinajpur district, the state government supplies bamboo made manually operated pumps, it is known as treadle pumps. These pumps extract groundwater that can be used for irrigation on a small scale.
• Boro Bundh Scheme is launched by State Government in some low-lying areas of Midnapore, Hooghly and Howrah districts where no cultivation is possible during the rainy season. In each and every year, Boro Bundh is constructed across the river in the months of October-November for harvesting water and utilize it for cultivating boro crops (rice).
• Water Harvesting System has been initiated by the state government especially in dry areas where to collect and store rainwater for irrigation i.e. the districts of Purulia, Birbhum, etc.
• West Bengal Accelerated Development of Minor Irrigation Project (WBADMIP) has been established to run and control the micro-projects for improving agriculture.
Tutorial 10: National Parks And Wildlife Sanctuaries in West Bengal
Tutorial 09: Drainage System / River System of West Bengal
Tutorial 08: Types of Soil in West Bengal
Tutorial 07: Climate of West Bengal
Tutorial 06: Natural Vegetation of West Bengal
Tutorial 05: Geographical Features of West Bengal
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